Future of Cancer Treatment with Living Drugs

Future of Cancer Treatment with Living Drugs

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Surgeries, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy which have been in the hit list for the treatment of cancer for ages, are now getting a thumb down after the onset of the treatment called immunotherapy which is definitely giving them a great kick in the treatment of cancer with mandatory relief to the patient at the same time.

Immunotherapy focuses on treating the kind of cancer maligning the person’s body with his/her own living cells. This revolutionary invention in the field of cancer treatment is often regarded as the “fifth pillar”. This drastically emerging approach in immunotherapy is also known as adoptive cell transfer or in short ACT. There are basically different sub types of it –

  • TILs – These are those specific white blood cells that have left their track from the bloodstream and instead merged into the tumour. These mononuclear immune cells can be found of various kinds that include – B cells, T cells, NK cells and macrophages. Here the T-cells are the most commonly found one.
  • TCRs – Also called cell receptors, TCRs are those molecules which are predicted on the surface of T lymphocytes or T-cells. The bear the responsibility of identifying the antigens fragments as peptides that hard bound to MHC or major histocompatibility complex.
  • CARs – Full formed as chimeric antigen receptors, or also referred to as chimeric immunoreceptors, artificial T cell receptors, chimeric T cell receptors or CAR-T are those receptors that are engineered to graft the random specificity on the T cells also called immune effector cell.

A New Era of Cancer Treatment

Among all above the only one chosen for treatment approval is that of CAR-T cell therapy by the US food and drug administration. It is limited to only a number of clinical uses for the treatment against acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This treatment is all set to be called as Kymriah and only to be approached once the earlier treatments such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy etc. fails.

How Does It Work?

Unlike the earlier conventional methods of treatment for cancer in chemotherapy or surgeries, this living drug that is extracted itself from the person’s body is tailor made for that particular person only. These T cells are first extracted from the patient’s body then they are designed or tailored through genetical reprogramming to recognise the specific kind of cancer after putting them back in the patient’s body, it then goes on to act and then finally kill the cancer cells.

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This just happens to be the very early stage of what is supposed to be called the real immunotherapy in the near future with researches being still going on at present to seek for modifying these white blood cells which from not extracted from the patient itself but a suitable donor.

These modified cells are capable of destroying any kind of cancer that is dwelling in the person. However, CAR-T cells have displayed effective action against solid tumours that occur in case of lungs cancer or melanoma, the results are more promising and extremely positive when it is treated on various types of blood based cancers.

The Living Drug

CAR-T cells can be aptly called equivalent to living drug that is exclusively for that one patient only and from his/her own white blood cell. While the laboratory started examining this method back in 1988 itself, it was only in 2002 that it got valid attention after a series of modifications. And it is now in August 2017 that the living drug (CAR-T cells therapy) has finally been approved for the treatment of kids suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Further, it is all set to pave a way of relief for the adults inflicted with advanced lymphoma next.

It Place in The Future of Cancer Treatment

Even after embracing so many plus points in it, it must be noted that this type of immunotherapy is undoubtedly at its extremely early stage and requires a lot of modifications and developments to present itself completely valid and ideal for the treatment of cancer patients all over the world.

Similarly, like conventional therapies of treating cancer, even this one abides itself with a number of severe side effects, namely, cytokine-release syndrome, cerebral edema or swelling in brain. While the former one is extremely fatal and frequently occurring, the latter one seems to be limited. Hence, the next big step to be accomplished by the researches and doctors indulged in modifying and incrementing this immunotherapy, will be to reduce its catastrophic side effects and presenting it as much safe as possible to its patient suffering from any kind of cancer.

This treatment using CAR-T cells therapy, it won’t be wrong to say that it rather stands on its first stage only, has definitely changed the definition of conventional immunotherapy to a large extinct but it still has a great way to cover yet in order to be fully recognised for its miraculous treatment results.

Understanding the Most Common Cancer Among Men: Prostate Cancer

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One of the most common kinds of cancer curing in men is the one that happens in the prostate gland. The prostate gland, the male reproductive organ, is located under the bladder and in front of the rectum which is responsible for producing prostate fluid which is one of the constituent of the semen and keeps it fertile and helps in its transportation to the ovum, moreover this gland is also performance a vital role in the urine control in the men’s body. If prostate cancer is predicted early, then it can be treated successfully but once the time is crossed this cancer starts spreading to the bones and can turn out to be extremely dangerous.

Reasons Behind Prostate Cancer

  • Prostate cancer generally attacks on men in there later ages especially after 50 or 60.
  • The researchers seem to commit that even obesity can be linked to the cause of prostate cancer.
  • It is also found out that this disease might be heredity as well, since, a person who has a family history of prostate cancer in his father or brother is more likely to be affected by it.
  • Men who tend to be indulged in healthy physical activities as well as exercises are less vulnerable to prostate cancer.
  • What food one consumes also contributed the great deal to this kind of cancer cells, as such, intake of red meat synthesised or genetically mutilated food items along with the foods containing huge amounts of fats must be minimised.
  • It is even seen that men of certain ethnic group are more prone to prostate cancer than others like the African and African-Caribbean tend to acquire prostate cancer more than white or Asian men.

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Early Signs of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer does not really show symptoms at early stages but only when the tumour gets large enough to hinder the position of the urethra.

  • It causes frequent urge to urinate especially at night time.
  • It also feels as if the person has not emptied his bladder completely even after urinating.
  • It also initiates difficulty in passing urine.
  • One might also feel to rush to the toilet even if it isn’t so or all he needed is just to urinate.
  • Another uncommon symptom of prostate cancer is that the patient encounters blood in his semen as well as urine.

Treating Prostate Cancer

  • Active Surveillance – This is generally practiced on men while they are at early period of the cancer and are with longer period of life expectancy as the treatment for prostate cancer obviously comes with some serious Side effects where men fail to maintain their erection or tend to lose control over the flow of urine. They are hence, kept under surveillance and their symptoms are watched carefully to note any further changes with curative local therapy. 
  • Watchful Waiting – It is often an option with a person in the dawn of his life who has already acquired a number of deadly diseases and is noted expected to live longer than 5 years. Here, the routinely treatments arrive biopsies as in the earlier case are not carried out. 
  • Surgery – The surgery is carried out by an oncologist who performs the surgery to remove the tumour from the prostate region. Moreover, if the malignant cells have already spread out of the cross-street region then it is also collaborated with other treatments in order to remove cancer. They are basically of two types- Radical (open) prostatectomy and Robotic or laparoscopic prostatectomy.

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  • Radiation Therapy – this therapy uses high energy rays are photons to kill the cancerous cells. It is only effective when the cancer is localised or locally advanced similar to the case of surgery. 
  • Chemotherapy – It uses a number of drugs to treat the prostate cancer which basically includes docetaxel, cabazitaxel and mitoxantrone. Where the docetaxel tends to be the most common for treating men with this kind of cancer. Moreover, chemotherapy is occasionally suggested to treat the cancer when in its advanced stage. 
  • Tailored Treatment – Here artificial intelligence is used to treat prostate cancer in men saving them from severe side effects. It works as the doctor take a close study into the DNA sequence or make up in the prostate cancer cells and even figure out the exact kind of changes occurring there. It is then only that they will go for the selection of the most suited drug for the treatment of this advanced stage prostate cancer in order to stop it from further spreading.

Some prostate cancer tends to grow slowly while others are extremely radical and hence they must be treated after leaving it radiotherapy or hormone therapy, chemotherapy or tailor therapy depending on the factor that which must be the best suited for the patient at first place with minimum side effects and longer life expectancy with least future troubles regarding the same.

Awareness Regarding Pancreatic Cancer Always Better Than Ignorance

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One occasionally gets to hear about breast cancer or lungs cancer and even colon cancer but in this case getting to know about pancreatic cancer can seem to be a bit rare in this regard. It is said that one in three adults might neglect the symptoms of a pancreatic cancer that generally seems to be more inclined towards old age people.

Briefing on Pancreas

Pancreas is an organ located in abdomen, behind the stomach. Its function is to secrete digestive enzymes that synthesis fats, proteins side crabs in the small intestines asking with it is also responsible for secretion of hormones such as glucagon and insulin. Pancreas is vulnerable to namely three kinds of diseases and they are –

  • Diabetes – Here the pancreas stops producing or produces in minimal amount the hormone insulin, this further contributes in raising the sugar level in the blood in excess.
  • Pancreatitis – When digestive enzymes get activated while still being in pancreas, this leads to the inflammation of the organ characterised with abdominal pain. This is known as pancreatitis that is both temporary as well as chronic.
  • Pancreatic Cancer – When the malignant cells start multiplying in the pancreas, it leads to pancreatic cancer.

What Is Pancreatic Cancer?

Its no hidden fact now that what a pancreatic cancer is, to look into this issue on a broader basis, pancreas contain two types of cells –

  • The cells that produce hormones are called endocrine pancreas cells.
  • On the other hand, exocrine pancreas cells secrete digestive enzymes. Most of the pancreatic cancers occur through these cells.

Apart from this there are broadly two types of pancreatic cancers based on the cells –

  • Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) – Marking its occurrence 95% of the time, it is the most common pancreatic cancer that is caused when the exocrine cells responsible for producing digestive juices get malignant and start multiplying alarmingly.
  • Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours (PNETs) – They are extremely rare and occur in the endocrine pancreas cells which secrete hormones, they don’t really showcase any symptoms at earlier stages. There are further various types of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours that have their specific effects as well as symptoms.

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Causes of Pancreatic Cancers

It is quite an unclear chapter on what exactly causes the most numbers of pancreatic cancers. Though the mutation of DNA is one specific reason, yet this mutation may occur through following factors –

  • It might be carried on through inherited cancer syndrome from a mother to child.
  • Smoking cigarette increases the risk of acquiring pancreatic cancer to a great extent. In fact, this seems to be one of the most popular reasons behind the cause of pancreatic cancer.
  • It might also be caused due to the increase in age, as this cancer is dominant among the senior citizens above the age group of 60 or 80.
  • It is even noted that men are more vulnerable to suffer from pancreatic cancer over women. It can be countered by saying maybe because men tend to smoke more tobaccos as compared to women.
  • Long term pancreatitis or inflammation of pancreas can be also linked to the risk of pancreatic cancer.
  • Type of food one consumes also plays a vital role in bridging pancreatic cancer in a person’s body. For example, excessive intake of red meat, food rich in cholesterol, fried dishes might increase the probability of it.
  • Obesity is one of the greatest disorders seen in today’s generation, from a teenager to an adult everyone is equally in grip of this disease. While it further creates hide for a great number of diseases, one of them can be undoubtedly stated as pancreatic cancer.

Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer

Since pancreas is surrounded by a number of digestive organs, even the pancreatic cancer creates a dominant effect on these surrounding organs. Few of its noteable or visible symptoms can be pointed out to be –

  • It initiates digestive system related diseases such as diarrhoea and jaundice due to the lack of sufficient digestive juices.
  • It quite common for patients of pancreatic cancer to feel loss of appetite, as such the weight decreases drastically.
  • The stool may happen to change their colour to pale losing their initial colour whereas the colour of urine turns out to be darker.
  • As the multiplication of the cancerous cells continuous, the victims may encounter abdominal pain which is not really static but seems to be fluctuating.
  • The sugar level of the body also increases drastically, hence, providing a boost to diabetes.
  • While some people even complain of nausea, difficulty in swallowing as well as itching that occurs all over the body.

It is very important for people to get aware or accustomed with the symptoms and causes, moreover the outcomes of pancreatic cancer in prior, which might not only help in reducing sudden panic to a great extent but then victims will also tend to seek for proper diagnosis and then treatment.

What It Takes to The Formation of Cancerous Cells?

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Understanding the roots of cancer is just not a matter of great need but also that of immense interest and mystery. It was a previously known fact that a cell sometimes intends to keep on multiplying while it forgets to die at the same time hence causing a cancerous tumour though it is to be noted that not all tumours cause cancer but only a specific type of tumours do.

Types of Cancer

Cancer is undoubtedly one of the most complicated diseases which had over 200 types. Some of them are seen on a general basis –

  • Men
  • Lung cancer
  • Liver cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Stomach cancer
  • Women
  • Lung cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Stomach cancer
  • Cervix cancer
  • Liver cancer

You definitely hear about and in fact are accustomed to the above ones, while other are quite rare meanwhile dangerous, some of which are-

  • Leukaemia – It happens in blood or in the bone marrow of a person which initiates the abnormal growth of white blood cells. This even leads to poor clotting of blood and even terrible immunity.
  • Lymphoma – As predicted by the name itself, it is a cancer of lymphatic system. It is further classified into Hodgkin’s lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
  • Vaginal Cancer – This kind of cancer happens due to the formation of malignant cells in the vagina. It is initiated with unusual vaginal discharge and trouble while urinating at early stages.
  • Salivary Gland Cancer – It is one of the rarest cancers which occurs in the salivary glands with early symptoms such as numb face, pain and difficulty in swallowing. It is generally treated with surgery; the latter options are radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Neuroblastoma – It is a type of cancer that occurs in a specific point of nerve cells. This usually takes place in toddlers and kids. And is extremely rare among one over the age of 10.
  • Bile Duct Cancer – Bile ducts are tiny tubes that bridges liver to the small intestine. This cancer can take place in any part of the bile duct and it’s begins with a mark of jaundice or sudden weight loss.
  • Mesothelioma – It occurs in the tissues that cover the lungs, sometimes heart, stomach as well as some other organs. This kind of cancer generally can’t be cured even though they can treat to reduce the further damage or pain.

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What Are the Roots of Cancer?

The exact cause of cancer is still ambiguous though there has been a lot of theories that predict to be the roots of cancer, while some are genetically acquire as well caused due to internal mutations, whereas others might have external cause.

Mutation is caused due to alteration of DNA sequence or any other genetic element in the cell. It is even being proceed that mutations are too swift in causing cancers-

  • It just takes a single mutation to cause testicular and thyroid cancers.
  • Four mutations and its done gift breast as well as liver cancer.
  • Whereas it almost takes minimum 10 mutations to drive a colorectal cancer.

On the other hand, the external factors that can be held responsible for the ignition of cancer are-

  • In the past few years, the drastic rise in the processing of genetically mutilated food products have severe effect on human health paving way for an alarming number of diseases which includes cancer too.
  • Another severe reason behind the cause of cancer is the high intake of canned food items that contain bisphenol-A (BPA) which is capable of altering the human brain cells.
  • It’s even found the red meat are highly capable of increasing chances of cancer including the intake of white flour as well as farmed fishes.
  • Another cause that can be easily avoided is by minimising the intake of microwaved food as much as possible.
  • Alcohol, cigarettes, soda as well as carbonated beverages are also vital reasons behind the occurrence of the cancer.
  • Whereas some highly consumed food products such as hydrogenated oils, processed meats, refined sugar as well as saturated fats increase the risk of formation of cancerous cells.

While no treatment is extremely assuring while it comes to rooting out cancer, it must not be wrong to say that many of them are curable at certain point of time. Some of the treatments for this killer catastrophe include-

  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Stem Cell Transplant
  • Precision Medicine

Whatever be the reason behind the cause of Cancer it is quite irritable now that it is the amount of mutation occurring in the cell that gives close to the type of cancer it is capable of developing. It must be noted as such that as the cells evolves so does the symptoms and effects of cancer and hence it would be wrong to say that this disease has been same over the ages without any change.

Revolutionary Attempts to Cure the Curse of Cancer

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With each day passing the fear of cancer is expanding uncontrollably just like its roots, which begins from the multiplying growth of the malignant cells without any hindrance and limitations. We have made way to a platform at present where there are hundreds of varieties of cancer are being displayed. If this is not nightmare then what else could be? The secrets of its roots, as well as eradication, are still undefined to the common man. Doctors have been working in this regard for over decades. And it must not be wrong to say that any cure made in this field will be bringing a revolutionary boost in magical science and ultimately human health and awareness.

Before looking into the cures let take a brief account of the genre of cancer:

  • Now that it’s already known that the very first origin of a cancer tumour arises from the uncontrollable formation of malignant cells which are later even capable of getting transferred from one apart of the body to the other through the bloodstream or lymphatic tissues, hence it invades the healthy cells or tissues by ultimately destroying them as well.
  • These cancerous tumours are even capable of making new blood vessels and hence feeding themselves independently not seeking help from other tissues. This process is regarded as angiogenesis.
  • While cancer cells tend to invade various parts of the body altogether, some might be site-specific hence leading to breast, colon, lungs, cervix cancers which is very common among women. In case of men, colon, rectum, lungs, and prostate cancers are the most common one.

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Treatments for Cancer

  • Surgery: At initial stage when the tumour is not that effective and confined to a specific organ or tissue of the body, it can be easily removed through surgery. It is one of the oldest technique for treating cancer. It is basically conducted independently, but sometimes it is also grouped up with some other kind of therapies.
  • Chemotherapy: In this kind of treatment the patient is treated with a dosage of one or more kind of drugs. It is a very stressful therapy which is conducted through quite a period of time, and once the treatment is over, it leaves its mark with the significant side that is generally temporary.
  • Radiation Therapy: Here the patient is treated with laser in the form of x-rays by the doctor. It must be noted that this procedure does not cause any pain. It does have different effects on different people and is conducted on the basis of the type of cancer, the affected area, and its impact. It too sides leaves its mark on the survivor’s general health.
  • Hormone Therapy: They block the path and effect of certain hormones like estrogen that might be capable of causing cancer in the breast. It’s also same in case of prostate cancer. It is not an independent treatment and is often coupled with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Vaccination: There had been quite a number of procedures going on across the world as a solution against fighting cancer but none of them are completely satisfying and usually leaves a performance with considerable anxiety and side effects during treatment and even in later periods. But in recent time a revolutionary invention has been created in the medical sector to fight cancer with full force through no other mode but vaccination.


1) These vaccines inject antibodies at the site of a tumour leading it to shrink and finally getting destroyed. It’s just like a regular vaccine for any other disease that not only fights the disease with the help of antibodies but also builds immunity against it.

2) It only gets better once you know that they don’t have any sort of side-effects or immense piston which had been already presented through a number of tests, unlike other existing treatments for cancer.

3) These highly functional and effective vaccines are made through some specific parts of RNA which then gets into action after activating dendritic cells. They are fully capable of searching the target site and attacks thereby initiating the immune system to take charge.

4) If this already tested vaccination gets its right to generalized use among cancer patients around the globe, the result will surely be immensely overwhelming. But before that, it definitely needs to pass through a lot number of tests for winning the double tick mark over it.

Cancer is regarded as one of the most vicious and tragic health issues that arise incoherently asking people due to slightest of unawareness. Hence, one must not use some options in order to block its path at very first place like

  • Healthy diet
  • Limited alcohol intake
  • Regular exercise
  • Saying no to tobacco
  • Avoiding excessive sunrays and radiation exposure

Yet, most of the cancers still have their causes anonymous to date. It, therefore, gets more important to be aware of its consequences and regular check-ups.

Vaccine Found By Experts for All Forms of Cancer

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It was in the past that cancer had no vaccine, because now, all forms of cancers have vaccines which are free from side-effects to a great extent. Numerous scientists have been working on generating a vaccine for cancer for several ages, and all their hard work has now paid off as now, they have a solution which convinces the body to create tumour attacking antibodies, thus strengthening its immune system.

This universal vaccine programs an individual’s immune system to attack tumours like it attacks viruses, making it possible to completely wipe of any signs of cancer before it has any impact on one’s body. This was initially done by introducing genetic RNA code acquired from cancer cells and inserting them into patients, in advanced stages of cancer. In order to insert the RNA into one’s bloodstream, they were first inserted into very small nanoparticles of fat and were introduced into three patients initially. All three patients’ bodies displayed the same response, and that was to generate cells designed to stack and remove cancer cells from the body.

This method of vaccination was initially introduced in mice, and when researchers observed that rapidly growing tumours in a tiny mouse’s body were being effectively reduced through these cancer fighting agents, they were introduced in humans. These vaccines are neither expensive nor require eons of time to be created, as it is quite easy for scientists to obtain the RNA and create an effective vaccine. As these results have even been published in Science, a popular scientific magazine it is now known throughout the world that cancer has a real vaccine that definitely fights cells creating tumours and spreading cancer.

feature_vaccineThe paper published in this magazine claims that these patients were given low doses of the vaccine initially. This experiment as not conducted to test the strength and working ability of this vaccine, and even after researchers observed the patients’ bodies reacting, they were unsure of its consequences and impact on cancer.

Gradually one of the patients, who had been suspected of having a growing tumour on a lymph node, was observed and it was concluded that after the vaccine had been administered, the tumour visibly reduced in size. A second patient, whose tumour had been removed after certain surgical procedures, was free from all signs of cancer seven months after being administered this vaccine.

The last patient had a total of eight tumours, and due to their rapid growth had managed to spread from the skin to the lungs. All these tumours the paper claimed were stable and were being effectively handled using other medication.

Several pieces of RNA were used to create the vaccine, which works by activating dendritic cells, which are capable of choosing specific targets so that the immune system can readily attack these cells. The strong cells that generally attack all forms of infections in the human body, respond strongly to this targeting process. The medical community is quite thrilled owing to the current findings concerned with cancer immunotherapy.

201504-omag-hope-vaccine-949x534Moreover, this procedure is being used to treat cancer patients who display signs of recurring cancer even after ten or more years of starting treatment. Some forms of cancer including testicular cancer are now being effectively cured using traditional methods. However, some other forms including melanoma, lung cancer and certain forms of neck and brain cancer are difficult to cure completely.

Now, with this vaccine researchers are glad that they can directly insert into the patient’s body through his/her bloodstream and the only side effects resemble mild flu, as opposed to strong impact caused by chemotherapy.

Reputed researchers claim that the three patients have shown positive results and by further development, there is a scope for this vaccine to be implemented on a larger scale. This is definitely a huge step towards a global goal of eradicating cancer.